Deep down inside, we all know it: It's inevitable that this living, breathing, beautiful, multipart machine, the human body, is — at some point, somewhere — going to break down.
We've all heard the warnings, the doctors' admonitions to get brave and submit to any one of an array of screenings, but too many of us brush them off — thinking, "Not me. I'm immune." Or maybe we're scared silly.
Well, here are a few medical realities to ponder, to make you think twice about putting off those routine screenings. The goal is happier endings.
Never miss a local story.
What you should know: Globally, cervical cancer is a major health problem, with a yearly incidence of 371,000 cases and an annual death rate of 190,000 women, according to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. It's estimated by the National Institutes of Health that 50 percent of the women diagnosed with cervical cancer each year have never had a Pap smear, and an additional 10 percent had not been screened within five years of the diagnosis, says Dr. Jessica Shepherd, a member of ACOG's Committee for Gynecologic Practice.
What you can do: When a woman turns 21, she should have Pap smears every two years during her 20s, according to the latest ACOG recommendations. When a woman turns 30, she can be screened every three years as long as she has had three consecutive negative (or clear) Pap tests, and no history of abnormal Pap tests or findings of human papillomavirus. However, women with certain risk factors and health problems might need more frequent screenings. Pap smears are recommended until a woman is 65, as long as she has had three normal Pap tests in a row and no abnormal results in 10 years. If a woman has had a hysterectomy, she should continue on the same schedule, unless her cervix was removed.
What you should know: The survival rate for colon cancer diagnosed at Stage 1 is 74 percent, according to the American Cancer Society. The survival rate for Stage 4 colon cancer is 6 percent. It can take eight to 10 years for symptoms to arise, and for polyps to grow cancerous, so early detection is your best bet, when the cancer is considered highly curable.
What you can do: If you have no family history of colon cancer, and no symptoms, celebrate your 50th birthday with a colonoscopy. If it's clean, with no signs of suspicious polyps — and no onset of symptoms down the road — you can wait 10 years before the next scope. Once you hit 75, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends no routine colon cancer screenings anymore (and no screening at all once you're older than 85).
What you should know: Of the more than 400,000 Americans who died of heart attacks in 2008, a full 50 percent had no symptoms of heart disease, says Dr. John Gordon Harold, vice president of the American College of Cardiology, clinical professor of medicine at UCLA's David Geffen School of Medicine, and a practicing cardiologist at Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute in Los Angeles.
What you can do: Harold says that one of the most vexing issues in the field of cardiology during the past decade has been the subject of screening for patients with no signs of heart disease.
Common sense rules here. If you have enough risk factors — family history, you've been a smoker, you're overweight, have high blood pressure or elevated "bad" cholesterol (LDL, or low-density lipoprotein) — make an appointment with a trusted cardiologist, who will conduct a thorough medical history and prescribe the screening plan right for you. If you get on the proper treatment plan, you can significantly lower your risk of heart attack or stroke, possibly by more than 20 percent to 30 percent, Harold says.
Health Department offers low-cost HPV vaccines
Herald-Leader Staff Report
The Lexington-Fayette County Health Department will offer low-cost human papillomavirus vaccinations next week as part of Cervical Cancer Awareness Month.
The vaccines are part of a special initiative with Cervical Cancer Free Kentucky designed to raise awareness about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine.
The vaccinations will be given Jan. 17 to 20 at the Public Health Clinic North, open 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday, Wednesday and Thursday; 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Tuesday; and 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. Friday. To make an appointment, call (859) 288-2446.
The vaccine, Gardasil, is for girls and women ages 9 to 26 and protects against infection from four strains of HPV that account for 70 percent of cervical cancers and 90 percent of genital warts.
The vaccine will be free for girls 18 and younger who are covered by Medicaid and $14 for those who aren't insured or are underinsured. Private insurance will be accepted, but patients should call their insurers before making appointments to determine whether the vaccine is covered.
The vaccine is administered in three injections over six months. Women who begin sexual activity at an early age or have had many sexual partners face a greater risk, but a woman may be infected with HPV even if she has had sex with only one person. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that girls get the HPV vaccine before their first sexual contact.
About 10,000 women in the United States get cervical cancer each year, and 3,700 die from it. Kentucky has one of the United States' highest death rates from cervical cancer.
T-shirts and Wal-Mart gift cards will be available for women who receive the HPV vaccine next week. For additional information, find the Lexington-Fayette County Health Department on Facebook, or follow it on Twitter at Twitter.com/LFCHD.