I hadn't spent any time in Knoxville, Tenn., since 1988, when I moved away after living there for seven years. I went back recently, and I was impressed with downtown's transformation.
Knoxville was never a place I associated with good urban design. Planning and zoning always seemed haphazard, at best. Suburbia sprawled out for decades, mostly westward along traffic-choked Kingston Pike.
Like Lexington, two major Interstate highways converge in Knoxville. But instead of going around the city, as was thankfully done in Lexington, I-40 and I-75 went through the middle of Knoxville.
The infamous "Malfunction Junction" was improved while I was living there in the early 1980s, but it still left Knoxville cut up by expressways, on-ramps, off-ramps, bridges and a maze of one-way streets. It was a confusing place to drive, and a difficult place to walk or bike.
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Many of those problems remain, but downtown is a different story.
Long a conservative city with divisive politics, Knoxville leaders finally came together to organize the 1982 World's Fair, which rehabilitated a former downtown railroad yard. That began a transformation that has made Knoxville's city center the kind of happening place downtown Lexington aspires to be.
I spent a week in Knoxville recently, biking with friends in the nearby Great Smoky Mountains and dining each night at restaurants along Market Square and Gay Street, the main downtown thoroughfare.
When I worked in downtown Knoxville as The Associated Press correspondent, some of its old buildings were vacant and many were in need of repair. When office workers went home each evening, the city center became a ghost town.
"You and I can remember when tumbleweed blew down the streets in the evenings," joked Alan Carmichael, an old friend who owns a downtown public relations firm, Moxley Carmichael, with his wife, Cynthia Moxley. "Now people pour in from the 'burbs" for restaurants, bars, outdoor concerts and frequent festivals.
One big factor in downtown Knoxville's revitalization has been historic preservation and adaptive reuse of old buildings, such as the old JFG Coffee plant and Sterchi furniture company, which are now loft apartments.
It began with the World's Fair, which restored the old L&N Railroad depot. But the big efforts came in the past decade with restoration of the Tennessee and Bijou theaters on Gay Street and the shops along Market Square, which date to the 1850s.
"We have very few old buildings downtown that haven't been restored," said Rick Emmett, the city's downtown coordinator. "Now we're spreading that to some of the historic commercial areas beyond downtown."
Downtown's restored charm and activity has attracted the chain retailers Mast General Store and Urban Outfitters. Regal Riviera, a new eight-screen movie theater complex, was tastefully integrated into Gay Street.
What made most of that possible was city government's investment in infrastructure, combined with creative city partnerships with business to finance development.
Perhaps the biggest city investment has been in parking garages a block or two from major pedestrian areas. Parking is free on weekends and after 6 p.m. on weeknights.
The city owns and operates six of 12 major downtown garages. Another garage is under construction. The city donated the land and private interests are building the garage. As part of the deal, evening and weekend parking will be free to the public in perpetuity, Emmett said.
Knoxville's downtown parking is marketed well, with maps, a smartphone app and a website, Parkdowntownknoxville.com.
"Knoxville has a compact, walkable downtown, but most people have to drive to get there," Carmichael said. The garages have "made a huge difference in terms of bringing people downtown."
Another key has been the Central Business Improvement District, funded by an extra tax on downtown property owners. It was controversial when created in 1993 — just as attempts to create one in Lexington have been controversial — but it has been a big success, said Carmichael and Emmett, who both serve on the board.
The tax generates more than $500,000 a year for infrastructure, beautification and grants and loans to help downtown businesses restore historic building façades. Some money also is used to sponsor frequent festivals and events that bring people downtown.
"What that has allowed us to do is fill in the gaps," Emmett said of the improvement district. "I think it has been huge."