On a recent afternoon, small groups of University of Kentucky students huddled around paintings and sculptures on display at UK's Chandler Medical Center.
As you might expect, some were art history majors. But they were there to help 17 medical students.
The medical students weren't really there to learn about art, but to observe it — very closely — and then describe what they saw and what they thought it meant.
The goal was to improve the medical students' observation and communications skills to make them better at diagnosing patients' illnesses.
"It's good to learn how to see the bigger picture by looking at the details," said Taylor Gilbert, a medical student from Lexington.
The exercise grew out of a presentation by Amy Herman, a lawyer and art historian who travels around speaking about what she calls "the art of perception." In early February, Herman spoke to a packed classroom at UK's College of Medicine.
Herman began this work more than 15 years ago when she was education director at the Frick Collection, an art museum in New York City. She had heard how art historians at Yale and the University of Texas worked with medical students to improve their perception skills, so she set up a similar program at the Frick for the nearby Cornell University medical school.
When a friend heard what Herman was doing, she suggested that these skills could help other professionals, too. Homicide detectives, for example. Herman contacted the New York Police Department and, within six months, she was training every newly promoted captain.
A Wall Street Journal reporter wrote about the program in 2005 and, Herman said, "My world exploded." She left the Frick to start her own consulting business. In addition to medical students and New York cops, she now trains agents for the FBI, CIA and even Navy SEALs.
As Herman began showing slides of paintings to the UK medical students and asking them to describe them, she forbid the use of two words: obviously and clearly.
"We work and live in a complex world, and very little obvious and even less is clear," she said. "No two people see anything the same way, and we have to understand and enrich our appreciation for that fact."
Herman showed what appeared to be an abstract painting, but was really a picture of a cow. Few saw the cow until she brought attention to it. She then drew lessons from landscapes, still life paintings and portraits of "handsome women of the 18th century" that held subtle clues about their lives.
"Perception goes both ways," she said. "How do patients perceive you when you walk into the room? Do you put them at ease? Is it easy to ask questions? Your patients may have an entirely different perspective than you do."
Herman said people often make mistakes by trying to "solve" problems too quickly, before they have taken time to assess a situation.
"Before you decide what to think and what to do, you need to say out loud what the issue is," she said, adding that some of those things may seem too obvious or be embarrassing to mention but can be vital details.
Herman showed a painting of an elderly, obese and naked woman sitting on a sofa. When asked to talk about it, an audience member began by describing the sofa's upholstery.
"You need to say what you see and not dance around it," Herman said. "I always tell police officers you will never get in trouble for saying what you see. Saying what you think is an entirely different story.
"Raise the issue, even if you can't explain it," she added. "Raise any inconsistency, because with more information somebody else may be able to answer the question for you. Also think about what's missing. What should be there but isn't?"
Herman said she recommends that child abuse investigators ask a child to smile. Seeing whether a child's teeth are clean says a lot about the care they are receiving.
"Small details can provide volumes of information," she said. "Body language and facial expression tell us a whole lot."
When describing observations, choose words carefully to be precise. And don't make assumptions. The three most important questions to ask when problem-solving: What do I know? What don't I know? What more do I need to know?
"There are often things hiding in plain sight that you are consciously or unconsciously not seeing," said Herman, who gave an embarrassing personal example.
Several years ago, while running in New York, she noticed a man in a wheelchair walking a puppy. She loves puppies, so she asked him if she could pet it. After playing with the puppy for several minutes, they parted. Within minutes, she realized that the man had looked familiar. It was Chuck Close, a famous artist she admired but had never met.
"He's one of my favorite artists in the world, but I was so focused on his puppy that I didn't even notice the man was a captive audience right in front of me," she said. "Don't miss what's right in front of you."