Buffalo Trace leaders loaded the first barrels into the Frankfort distillery's experimental Warehouse X on Tuesday.
The four chambers will have varying degrees of available sunlight and will be compared to barrels left open to the elements in a breezeway in the middle of the warehouse.
Two chambers will get no sunlight, but their temperature and humidity will be different (one will be constant; the other will vary). One chamber will get 50 percent of available sunlight and another will get 100 percent sunlight.
The test will run for at least two years, when Buffalo Trace will assess the results, which might eventually be released.
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"It depends on how the experiments go," spokeswoman Amy Preske said. "The main focus is to discover how light, temperature, air flow and humidity affect bourbon, and to create the perfect bourbon."