Richard Carwardine, writing in his "Lincoln, a Life of Purpose and Power," discusses the 16th president's religious views, or the uncertainty surrounding them. Despite Lincoln's reticence on this issue, Carwardine writes: "Few religious traditions have subsequently failed to embrace him. Friends have pointed to his Virginia Quaker forebears, Baptists to his parents' faith, Methodists to a supposed conversion at a camp meeting, Catholics to a surreptitious joining of their church, and Presbyterians to a public attendance at theirs. Masons, Unitarians, and Universalists have each clasped him to their bosoms. Following the visits of two or three mediums to the wartime White House, the Spiritualists claimed him as one of theirs, though Lincoln himself was facetiously dismissive, remarking that the contradictory voices of the spirits at these seances reminded him of his cabinet meetings."