With secession, the former states declared themselves pro-slavery nations. The secessionist nations arrested federal officials, and some promptly deported the officials to the United States.
Some of the secessionist nations imprisoned the officials without trials under harsh conditions, some dying in captivity. Federal properties, some military bases and Northern business assets were confiscated in the secessionist nations.
These facts, plus the lobby of the families of hundreds of officials taken hostage, started to turn public opinion in the U.S. against the secessionists. As there was little appetite for war, President Abraham Lincoln offered to negotiate, which the secessionist nations refused.
The commandment of the Citadel military academy led the cadets to take over artillery placements opposite Fort Sumter and bombarded the fort. The secessionist nations confirmed this attack with declarations of war against the U.S.
The hundreds of thousands of Americans killed or wounded plus the destruction and subsequent poverty of the South were largely due to the haughty boneheaded arrogance of the secessionist knaves, like slavery apologist Jefferson Davis.
Allen T. Kelley